Java 8 中新的Date和Time类详解

这篇文章主要是Java 8中新的Date和Time API的实战。新的Date和Time类是java开发者社区千呼万唤始出来的。Java8 之前存在的Date类一直都受人诟病,很多人都会选择使用第三方的date库joda-time。Java8中的date和time api是jodatime的作者参与开发的,实现了JSR310的全部内容。这些新的api都在包java.time下。

既然第三方的joda-time,date4j都已经足够强大了,为什么java8还要重新实现他呢,一部分的原因是这些第三方的库是存在兼容问题的,比如标准的JSF日期转化器与joda-time api,就不兼容,每次使用都需要编写自己的转换器,所以标准化api是必须的,就有了JSR310,java8中就实现了他全部的规定内容。

新Date类和Time类背后的设计原则:

不可变类

java8之前,Date类都是可变类。当我们在多线程环境下使用它,编程人员应该确认Date对象的线程安全。Java8的Date和Time API提供了线程安全的不可变类。编程人员不用考虑并发的问题。

领域模型驱动设计方法

新的日期和时间的类别遵循“域驱动设计”。对于开发者来说,理解方法和类的功能是很容易的。

接下来让我们来看看新Date和Time API:

java.time.LocalDate:

LocalDate只提供日期不提供时间信息。它是不可变类且线程安全的。

package org.smarttechie;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
/**
* This class demonstrates JAVA 8 data and time API
* @author Siva Prasad Rao Janapati
* */
public class DateTimeDemonstration {
/**
* @param args
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
   //Create date LocalDate localDate = LocalDate.now();
    System.out.println("The local date is :: " + localDate); 
   //Find the length of the month. That is, how many days are there for this month.
   System.out.println("The number of days available for this month:: " + localDate.lengthOfMonth()); 
   //Know the month name
   System.out.println("What is the month name? :: " + localDate.getMonth().name()); 
   //add 2 days to the today's date.
   System.out.println(localDate.plus(2, ChronoUnit.DAYS)); 
   //substract 2 days from today
   System.out.println(localDate.minus(2, ChronoUnit.DAYS)); 
   //Convert the string to date
   System.out.println(localDate.parse("2017-04-07"));
  }
}

java.time.LocalTime:

LocalTime只提供时间而不提供日期信息,它是不可变类且线程安全的。

package org.smarttechie;
import java.time.LocalTime;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
/**
* This class demonstrates JAVA 8 data and time API
* @author Siva Prasad Rao Janapati
* */
public class DateTimeDemonstration {
/**
* @param args
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
   //Get local time
   LocalTime localTime = LocalTime.now();
   System.out.println(localTime);
  //Get the hour of the day
  System.out.println("The hour of the day:: " + localTime.getHour());
  //add 2 hours to the time.
  System.out.println(localTime.plus(2, ChronoUnit.HOURS));
  //add 6 minutes to the time.
  System.out.println(localTime.plusMinutes(6));
  //substract 2 hours from current time
  System.out.println(localTime.minus(2, ChronoUnit.HOURS));
 }
}

java.time.LocalDateTime:

LocalDateTime提供时间和日期的信息,它是不可变类且线程安全的

package orr.smarttechie;
import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
/**
* This class demonstrates JAVA 8 data and time API
* @author Siva Prasad Rao Janapati
*
*/
public class DateTimeDemonstration {
/**
* @param args
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
    //Get LocalDateTime object
    LocalDateTime localDateTime = LocalDateTime.now();
    System.out.println(localDateTime);
    //Find the length of month. That is, how many days are there for this month.
    System.out.println("The number of days available for this month:: " + localDateTime.getMonth().length(true));
    //Know the month name
    System.out.println("What is the month name? :: " + localDateTime.getMonth().name());
    //add 2 days to today's date.
    System.out.println(localDateTime.plus(2, ChronoUnit.DAYS));
    //substract 2 days from today
    System.out.println(localDateTime.minus(2, ChronoUnit.DAYS));
  }
}

java.time.Year:

Year提供年的信息,它是不可变类且线程安全的。

package orr.smarttechie;
import java.time.Year;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
/**
* This class demonstrates JAVA 8 data and time API
* @author Siva Prasad Rao Janapati
*
*/
public class DateTimeDemonstration {
/**
* @param args
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
   //Get year
   Year year = Year.now();
   System.out.println("Year ::" + year);
   //know the year is leap year or not
   System.out.println("Is year[" +year+"] leap year?"+ year.isLeap());
  }
}

java.time.Duration:

Duration是用来计算两个给定的日期之间包含多少秒,多少毫秒,它是不可变类且线程安全的

java.time.Period:

Period是用来计算两个给定的日期之间包含多少天,多少月或者多少年,它是不可变类且线程安全的

package orr.smarttechie;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.Period;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
/**
* This class demonstrates JAVA 8 data and time API
* @author Siva Prasad Rao Janapati
*
*/
public class DateTimeDemonstration {
/**
* @param args
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
   LocalDate localDate = LocalDate.now();
   Period period = Period.between(localDate, localDate.plus(2, ChronoUnit.DAYS));
   System.out.println(period.getDays());
  }
}

翻译:栗子蜀黍 英文原文:Java 8 New Date And Time Overview